Since its introduction in the 1970′s, there have been dozens of articles written on pacing the diaphragm to treat a wide variety of conditions. Much of that literature was written about earlier versions of the equipment which are now obsolete. The following is a synopsis of the most recent and most relevant articles:
“Clinical Advances in Diaphragm Pacing”
INNOVATIONS. September/October 2011, Vol. 6, pp.289-297.
“Intrathoracic Phrenic Pacing: A 10-Year Experience in France”
The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. E-Pub May 2011.
“Vagal Nerve Stimulator Placement for Medically Refractory Seizures in a Child Treated with Phrenic Nerve Pacing for Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome”
Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics. April 2011, Vol. 7, pp. 413-415.
“Re-Innervation of the Paralyzed Diaphragm: Application of Nerve Surgery Techniques Following Unilateral Phrenic Nerve Injury”
CHEST. E-Pub February 2011.
“Survival after Short- or Long-Term Ventilation after Acute Spinal Cord Injury: a Single-Centre 25-Year Retrospective Study”
Spinal Cord. E-Pub October 2010, Vol. 49, pp. 404-410.
“A Rare Instance of “Cardio-Respiratory Pacing”:
Permanent Pacemaker Insertion for Symptomatic Bradycardia in a Quadriplegic Man Dependent on Diaphragmatic Pacing by Phrenic Nerve Stimulators” Cardiology. June 2010, Vol. 116, pp. 98-100.
“Phrenic Nerve Stimulation: The Australian Experience”
Journal of Clinical Neuroscience. February 2010, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 205-208.
“Implantation of a Breathing Pacemaker in a Tetraplegic Patient in Hong Kong”
Hong Kong Journal of Medicine. June 2009, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 230-233.
“Long Term Recovery of Diaphragmatic Function in a Patient with Unilateral Diaphragmatic Pacemaker”
Current Respiratory Medicine Reviews. February 2009, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 59-61.
“Mechanical Ventilation or Phrenic Nerve Stimulation for Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury-Induced Respiratory Insufficiency”
Spinal Cord. May 2008, Vol. 46, No. 11, pp. 738-742.
“Functional Electrical Stimulation After Spinal Cord Injury: Current Use, Therapeutic Effects and Future Directions”
Spinal Cord. April 2008, Vol. 46, No. 4, pp. 255-274.
“Rapid Disuse Atrophy of Diaphragm Fibers in Mechanically Ventilated Humans”
New England Journal of Medicine. March 27 2008, Vol. 358, No. 13, pp. 1327-1335.
“Electricity in the Treatment of Nervous System Disease”
Acta Neurochirurgica – Supplement. January 2007, Vol. 97, No. 1, pp. 11-19.
“Cardiac Pacing in a Patient with Diaphragm Pacing for Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (Ondine’s Curse)”
Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology. July 2006, Vol. 17, No. 7, pp. 789-791.
“Absence of Device-Device Interaction (DDI) in a Patient with Cardiac and Diaphragmatic Pacemakers for Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome.”
Journal of Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology. November 2005, Vol.28, pp.1238-1239.
“Diaphragm Pacers as a Treatment for Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome.”
Expert Review of Medical Devices. August 2005, Vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 577-585.
“Endoscopic, Robotically Assisted Implantation of Phrenic Pacemakers.”
Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. August 2003, Vol. 126, No.2, pp. 582-583.
“Long Term Follow-up of Pacing of the Conditioned Diaphragm in Quadriplegia.”
Journal of Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology. June 2002, Vol.25, No.6, pp.897-906.
“Fundamental Considerations in Pacing of the Diaphragm for Chronic Ventilatory Insufficiency: A Multi-Center Study.”
Journal of Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology. November 1988 Part II, Vol.11, pp.2121-2127.
“Artificial Respiration by Phrenic Nerve Stimulation (Diaphragm Pacing) in Patients with Cervical Cord and Brain Stem Lesions..”
Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. April 1983, 15(4), pp. 173-181.
“Long-Term Ventilatory Support by Diaphragm Pacing in Quadriplegia.”
Annals of Surgery. May 1976, 183(5), pp. 566-577.
“Central Hypoventilation; Long-Term Ventilatory Assistance by Radiofrequency Electrophrenic Respiration.”
Annals of Surgery October 1970, 172(2), pp. 755-773.